AAAS: THE PHYSICAL SETTING: FORCES OF NATURE - Electromagnetic forces acting within and between atoms are vastly stronger than the gravitational forces acting between the atoms

Electromagnetic forces acting within and between atoms are vastly stronger than the gravitational forces acting between the atoms. At the atomic level, electric forces between oppositely charged electrons and protons hold atoms and molecules together and thus are involved in all chemical reactions. On a larger scale, these forces hold solid and liquid materials together and act between objects when they are in contact-as in sticking or sliding friction.

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